October 12th is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 80 days remaining until the end of the year.
1398 – The Grand Duke of Lithuania Vytautas the Great and the Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights Konrad von Jungingen signed the Treaty of Salynas, the third attempt to cede Samogitia to the Knights.
1692 – The Salem witch trials are ended by a letter from Massachusetts Governor Sir William Phips.
1799 – Jeanne Geneviève Labrosse became the first woman to make a parachute descent, falling 900 m (3,000 ft) in a hot-air balloon gondola.
1892 – The Pledge of Allegiance of the United States was first used in public schools to coincide with the opening of the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago.
1960 – Japan Socialist Party leader Inejiro Asanuma was assassinated on live television by a man using a samurai sword.
1984 – The Provisional Irish Republican Army detonated a bomb at the Grand Hotel in Brighton, England, in a failed attempt to assassinate British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and most of her cabinet.
Hugh Jackman turns 50
Kirk Cameron turns 48
Josh Hutcherson turns 26
October 11th is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 81 days remaining until the end of the year.
1142 – The Treaty of Shaoxing was ratified, ending the Jin–Song Wars, although sporadic fighting continued until 1234.
1311 – The peerage and clergy of the Kingdom of England published the Ordinances of 1311 to restrict King Edward II’s powers.
1840 – Bashir Shihab II surrendered to the Ottoman Empire and was removed as Emir of Mount Lebanon after an imperial decree by Sultan Abdülmecid I.
1950 – A field-sequential color system developed by Hungarian-American engineer Peter Goldmark became the first color television system to be adopted for commercial use, only for it to be abandoned a year later.
1987 – Sri Lankan Civil War: The Indian Peace Keeping Force began Operation Pawan to take control of Jaffna from the Tamil Tigers and enforce their disarmament as a part of the Indo-Sri Lanka Accord.
Joan Cusack turns 56
Luke Perry turns 52
Artie Lange turns 51
Emily Deschanel turns 42
Matt Bomer turns 41
Michelle Trachtenberg turns 33
October 10th is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 82 days remaining until the end of the year.
1780 – One of the deadliest Atlantic hurricanes on record struck the Caribbean Sea, killing at least 20,000 people over the next seven days.
1846 – English astronomer William Lassell discovered Triton, the largest moon of the planet Neptune.
1911 – The Xinhai Revolution began with the Wuchang Uprising, marking the beginning of the collapse of the Qing dynasty and the establishment of the Republic of China.
1943 – World War II: The Kenpeitai, the military police arm of the Imperial Japanese Army, arrested and tortured fifty-seven civilians and civilian internees on suspicion of their involvement in a raid on Singapore Harbour during Operation Jaywick.
1963 – The Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, which prohibits all test detonations of nuclear weapons except for those conducted underground, came into effect.
Charles Dance turns 72
Mario Lopez turns 45
Dan Stevens turns 36
Rose McIver turns 30
October 9th is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 83 days remaining until the end of the year.
1594 – Sinhalese–Portuguese War: Portugal had almost conquered the island of Sri Lanka when its army was essentially annihilated, ending the Campaign of Danture.
1708 – Great Northern War: Russia defeated Sweden at the Battle of Lesnaya on the Russian–Polish border in what is now Belarus.
1888 – The Washington Monument in Washington, D.C., at the time the world’s tallest building, officially opened to the general public.
1914 – World War I: The civilian authorities of Antwerp surrendered, allowing the German army to capture the city.
2016 – Militants attacked a border police post in Myanmar, killing nine people and triggering a period of intense persecution of the Rohingya Muslim minority.
Sharon Osbourne turns 66
Guillermo del Toro turns 54
David Cameron turns 52
Sean Lennon turns 43
Bella Hadid turns 22
October 8th is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 84 days remaining until the end of the year.
1897 – Composer Gustav Mahler was appointed the director of the Vienna Court Opera.
1918 – World War I: After his platoon suffered heavy casualties during the Meuse-Argonne Offensive in France’s Forest of Argonne, American Corporal Alvin York led the 7 remaining men on an attack against a German machine gun nest, killing 28 German soldiers and capturing 132 others.
1952 – Three trains collided at Harrow & Wealdstone station in London, killing 112 people and injuring 340.
1962 – The German news magazine Der Spiegel revealed the unpreparedness of the West German armed forces against the communist threat from the east, and was accused of treason shortly afterwards.
1969 – Demonstrations organized by the Weather Underground known as the Days of Rage began in Chicago.
Sigourney Weaver turns 69
Matt Damon turns 48
Nick Cannon turns 38
Bruno Mars turns 33
Bella Thorne turns 31
September 28th is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 94 days remaining until the end of the year.
351 – The Eastern Roman armies under Constantius II defeated those of the usurper Magnentius at the Battle of Mursa Major.
1821 – The Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire from Spain was drafted in the National Palace in Mexico City.
1924 – A team of U.S. Army Air Service aviators landed in Seattle, Washington, to complete the first aerial circumnavigation of the world.
1978 – Pope John Paul I died only 33 days after his papal election due to an apparent myocardial infarction, resulting in the first year of three popes since 1605.
2008 – SpaceX’s Falcon 1 rocket achieved orbit on its fourth attempt to become the first successful liquid-propelled orbital launch vehicle developed with private funding.
Brigitte Bardot turns 84
Mira Sorvino turns 51
Naomi Watts turns 50
Hilary Duff turns 31
September 27th is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 95 days remaining until the end of the year.
1825 – Locomotion No. 1 hauled the train on the opening day of the Stockton and Darlington Railway, the first public railway in the world to use steam locomotives.
1854 – The paddle steamer SS Arctic sank after a collision with SS Vesta 50 miles (80 km) off the coast of Newfoundland, killing approximately 320 people.
1930 – With his victory in the United States Amateur Championship, Bobby Jones became the only person to complete a Grand Slam in golf.
1964 – The British Aircraft Corporation TSR-2, an advanced Cold War tactical strike and reconnaissance aircraft that was later cancelled, made its maiden flight.
1988 – Led by pro-democracy activist Aung San Suu Kyi, the political party National League for Democracy was founded in Burma.
Marc Maron turns 55
Gwyneth Paltrow turns 46
Lil Wayne turns 36
Avril Lavigne turns 34
September 26th is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 96 days remaining until the end of the year.
1493 – Pope Alexander VI issued the papal bull Dudum siquidem, the last of the Bulls of Donation, marking the beginning of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
1687 – The Parthenon in Athens was partially destroyed during an armed conflict between the Venetians under Francesco Morosini and Ottoman forces.
1907 – The British Colony of New Zealand officially became a dominion to reflect its political independence since the 1850s.
1983 – The racing yacht Australia II, captained by John Bertrand, won the America’s Cup, ending the New York Yacht Club’s 132-year defense of the trophy.
2008 – Swiss pilot and inventor Yves Rossy flew a wingpack powered by jet engines across the English Channel.
Linda Hamilton turns 62
Jim Caviezel turns 50
Serena Williams turns 37
Talulah Riley turns 33
September 25th is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 97 days remaining until the end of the year.
275 – After the assassination of Aurelian, Tacitus was chosen by the Senate to succeed him as Roman emperor.
1790 – Peking opera was born when the Four Great Anhui Troupes introduced Anhui opera to Beijing in honor of the Qianlong Emperor’s eightieth birthday.
1944 – Second World War: British troops began their withdrawal from the Battle of Arnhem in the Netherlands, ending the Allies’ Operation Market Garden in defeat.
1977 – About 4,200 people took part in the first modern Chicago Marathon.
1990 – The Ram Rath Yatra, a political-religious march organised to erect a temple to the Hindu deity Rama on the site of the Babri Masjid, began in the Indian state of Gujarat.
Barbara Walters turns 89
Michael Douglas turns 70
Will Smith turns 50
Catherine Zeta-Jones turns 49
Donald Glover / Childish Gambino turns 35
September 24th is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 98 days remaining until the end of the year.
1789 – The Judiciary Act of 1789 was signed into law, establishing the U.S. federal judiciary and setting the number of Supreme Court Justices.
1841 – Raja Muda Hashim, uncle of the Sultan of Brunei, granted Sarawak to British adventurer James Brooke.
1903 – Alfred Deakin became the second Prime Minister of Australia, succeeding Edmund Barton who left office to become a founding Justice of the High Court of Australia.
1964 – The Warren Commission released its report to the U.S. president, concluding that Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone in the assassination of John F. Kennedy. The report was made public three days later.
1975 – Dougal Haston and Doug Scott on the Southwest Face expedition became the first people to reach the summit of Mount Everest by ascending one of its faces.
F. Scott Fitzgerald is born in 1896
The Muppet’s Jim Henson is born in 1936
SNL’s Phil Hartman is born 1948
WWE’s Stephanie McMahon turns 42